The development/creation of a website can be done in many different ways, you just have to choose the best option available. Here, WordPress is wining a big part of the market, because of the way it simplifies this process. At the beginning, WordPress was just used for blogs and it was very well seen by Google regarding the SEO side because of the idea of new content added frequently. But since then developers have bought to the market all sort of (free/paid) plugins that can transform your site from a simple blog into any type of website (portfolio, webshop, etc.). The design is also being taken careof also by plugins called “page builders” like Elementor Page Builder (free/paid), Divi Page Builder (paid) and others. So, depending on your website needs, you may be able to fill them with free (versions of) plugins or you may have to get their “premium” versions, but that mostly applies to people that are not web developers/designers. Most of the time they know how to solve those requirements without using those “premium” versions. For example, i am the kind of guy that avoids using a plugin if he can find an alternative like adding some PHP/CSS/HTML code to different files of the child themes.
Besides all those advantages provided by WordPress, web developers can choose other software to use to create a website, like Joomla, Drupal, Typo3 and others. When I discovered Joomla I liked it a lot, until I discovered how annoying and complicated was the major version upgrade at that time, which kinda sent out of my favourites list. Comparing to Joomla or WordPress, Drupal seems to be more complicated from my point of view and Typo3 it is No#1 on the top of the most complicated websites solutions, but that is just because it is a very advanced solution that seems to be a sort of a CMS and framework (because of the security/routing/access/etc. options).
Outside of all this software solutions, companies and web developers can choose to create websites using full “proprietary code” or using different frameworks a sort of a quickstart. Here we can talk about Laravel, Symfony or Code Igniter. When I discovered Code Igniter or Symfony, I think they cought me not enough prepared for them. So I cannot talk too much about them. I have installed Symfony once after seeing many job offers that require knowledge/experience on this framework, but that was after getting decent experience with Laravel. Laravel it’s a sort of a quickstarted version Symfony (Laravel is based on Symfony), so when I installed Symfony and I realised that I need to do by myself all those things that are already taken care of in Laravel it sounded a bit like ‘reinventing the wheel’.